Pericarditis represent inflammatory disease of the lining of the heart, called the pericardium. The incidence of pericarditis is not big (4-5%) but difficult diagnosis, treatment and consequences that entail, lead them in the column of heavy and adverse cardiac diseases. There are several classifications of pericarditis:
According to the appearance and durability of the disease are: acute, subacute (over months), chronic (over years). Part of being called chronic constrictive pericarditis (tightly adherent layers of the pericardium once the acute infection).
According to the agent: infectious and non-infectious.
Depending on whether there is fluid (pericardial effusion) in the pericardial sac – no effusion, with effusion and worst option – with effusion causing cardiac tamponade.
What complaints can have a patient with acute pericarditis?
Complaints are different in acute and chronic pericarditis, it is important to know that they can be quite discreet, mimicking other diseases and difficult to diagnose. Acute pericarditis can have:
– Chest pain or one involving the shoulder girdle, abdomen or neck. A particular feature of this pain is that it decreases when bending forward or sitting.
– Shortness of breath, shallow breathing, tightness in the chest.
– Elevated temperature, which varies from low to high critical as the cause of the infection.
– Anorexia, fatigue.
– Sweating (sometimes mainly at night).
– Weakening of weight.
– Nausea, impaired swallowing, impaired respiration (if pericardial effusion).
One of the most serious and life-threatening situations, which may occur, is the collection of a large amount perikaren effusion and forming the so-called cardiac tamponade. In it, because of compression of the heart muscle outside, disrupting its function. Complaints are more pronounced and require timely and adequate treatment.
What reasons can lead to acute pericarditis?
There are many different causes of acute pericarditis. On one side stand infections – influenza, varicella, adenovirus, rubella and others; bakerialni causes – tuberculosis bacteria, staphylococci, pneumococci, etc; fungi, parasites, HIV, etc. Another large group are those in connective tissue diseases – rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, scleroderma, and the like. Infections of organs adjacent to the pericardial sac – pneumonia, pleurisy, diseases of the heart or great vessels. Pericarditis can also occur in gout, myxedema, kidney failure, cancer, after injuries to the heart, after the radiotherapy and many others.
What are the main changes that are found in the review?
When preglezha ill with suspected pericarditis is particularly important to clarify all available accompanying diseases, infections experienced in the recent and distant past, lifestyle, etc. Interrogation and after a review to establish some or all of the described simptomi.Pri review can be found rapid pulse, rapid breathing, specific noise pericardial friction damping heartbeat, possibly X-ray and echocardiographic changes of heart, forming a pericardial effusion in different size, ECG changes and so on. Different types of pericarditis have their peculiarities in progress. In laboratory testing changes are not specific – data inflammatory process laboratory evidence of heart damage and more. It is especially important in the presence of the effusion material to be taken from it by a puncture, and it can be examined. Treatment of pericarditis is complex, involving both general medicine and specific on the exact cause. Neryadno need and surgical procedures for complications occurred. The heart and its coatings are subject to complications of many diseases. That is why you always have to think seriously in this direction, even in the most vague complaints.