Amyloidosis is a rare disease, but there is usually fatal. It is due to the deposition of an abnormal protein called amyloid in tissues and organs of the body, which is most commonly produced by the bone marrow cells. Gradually protein leads to damage organ function, which accumulates. There are different types of amyloid, which are distinguished by the certain color characteristics. Causes of amyloidosis are still unknown. The most affected organs are the heart, kidneys, liver, spleen, nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. As can be seen, the disease covers a number of vital organs, making it an exceptional value. At this stage no treatment for the disease, there are only different methods by which to alleviate and control the symptoms to some extent.
There are three main types of amyloidosis depending on the cause leading to her appearance:
Primary – this is the most common kind of the disease, in which the primary concern is the heart, kidneys, tongue, nerves. Usually, this form is not associated with other diseases with the exception of a certain type of tumor in the marrow called multiple myeloma. Causes of primary amyloidosis is unknown. Experts believe that the onset of disease in the bone marrow, where the cells begin to produce not only red, white blood cells and platelets, but also antibodies – form protein molecules that normally protect against the occurrence of many diseases. Once antibodies perform their functions in the body, they are subject to degradation by specific structures of the body. Amyloidosis occurs when the bone marrow produces antibodies which subsequently can not be destroyed. Gradually the concentration of these proteins in the blood greatly increases and they begin to be deposited in different tissues and organs as amyloid.
Secondary – this type of amyloidosis occurs most often on the basis of underlying chronic inflammatory disease such as tuberculosis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteomyelitis. This can affect all tissues and organs, but most often suffer kidney, liver, spleen and lymph nodes. In this case, treatment of the primary disease leading to the pathological accumulation of amyloid in the cells of the organism, may prevent the further evolution of amyloidosis.
Survivor – a type of amyloidosis that is inherited. Concern is usually the nerves, heart and kidneys.
Since in most cases the cause of the occurrence of the disease remains unknown, it is difficult determining the factors that increase the risk of amyloidosis. Yet scientists believe that these items are related to more frequent occurrence of the disease:
Age – usually most patients with amyloidosis over 40 years.
Gender – men suffer more often from disease
Other diseases – the presence of chronic inflammatory or infectious disease increases the risk of the onset of amyloidosis. Usually 10-15% of people with multiple myeloma have amyloidosis – type Nehodzhikov lymphoma.
Hemodialysis – in some cases, it is associated with dialysis-related amyloidosis. The reason for its occurrence is that the body through dialysis can not remove large proteins from the blood as a result of which they become deposited in the surrounding tissue.
Research shows that the amount received dietary protein has no relation to the occurrence of the disease. Furthermore, there is no proven link between amyloidosis and stress.