Behcet’s disease is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis affecting mainly small and large veins and arteries in part. Thus affected practically can have all the organs in the human body, but the prevalent incidence of damage mainly the skin, eyes and mucous membranes. The disease is spread mainly in the countries around the Mediterranean, Middle East, Turkey and Japan. Affected are both sexes prevalent incidence in males. It occurs mainly in young age – 30-40 years of age. The causative agent of the disease has not yet been discovered, the most likely case of a disorder of the immune system. Discusses the role of spent viral infection.
What are the main symptoms of the disease?
Aphthous stomatitis – regularly produces large, very painful ulcers, ulcers in the mouth – on the tongue, lips and palate. They are found in almost all patients. Heal slowly – about 7 to 10 days, but pass without scarring.
Genital ulcers – such painful ulcers can occur in the genitals and skin.
Eye involvement – found in 60-80% of cases. Usually occurs a few years after the first signs of the disease. In 50% of cases affects both eyes. The case is for the development of chronic recurrent uveitis – inflammation of the middle covering of the eyeball, which includes the choroid and retina. Inflammation of these vessels results in an increase of their permeability and “pouring” of the inflammatory infiltrate in the surrounding tissue. Most often affects the location of the clearest vision and develop makuloedem. Recurrence and poor therapeutic benefit of the latter, as well as the progression of occlusive vasculitis are the basis of the risk of blindness. It is possible the development of other eye lesions – iridocyclitis, hypopyon – collection of pus in the anterior chamber, corneal ulceration and others.
Behcet’s disease symptoms
Skin changes – along with painful ulcers may develop erythema nodosum – reddish-bluish painful nodules primarily in the lower legs, which subsequently acquire yellow-greenish color. Possible emergence of erythema multiforme – symmetrically on the back of the wrists and feet, the external surfaces of the forearms and drumsticks, and on the sides of the neck and face are formed round erythema, edema rash with rozovochervena peripherals and red-purple center, which bubbles and bulls having a tendency to merge. Mucosal may also occur bullae which eventually erode and form a fibrin – off-white coating.
Serous meningitis or meningoentsefalit – nervous system addressed in 25% of cases. Symptoms are typical with headache, vomiting, focal neurological symptoms, seizures, affecting the cranial nerves, dementia or behavioral disorders.
Arthritis – affects mostly ankle joints and is one of the most common symptoms.
Thrombophlebitis and/or phlebothrombosis – reason for violation of blood circulation in the affected area.
Effect on the heart, kidneys, lungs and gastrointestinal tract – is rarely observed.
Behcet’s disease diagnosis
It is based on relevant clinical symptoms. Laboratory parameters – ESR and CRP, when enlarged, also speak of the presence of inflammation. Depending on the area of involvement conduct additional studies of the respective specialist.
Behcet’s disease treatment
The treatment results in suppression of the inflammatory process. This is achieved mainly with the help of corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs – cytostatics. In the case of refractoriness and severe eye involvement successful application have biological preparations – alpha – interferon antagonists and tissue necrosis factor.