Epilepsy is a disorder of the nervous system related to suddenly occurred hyper-sensitive excitation of nerve cells in a specific area of the brain. It represents the fourth most common most common disease of the nervous system that affects people of any age and any gender. Classical concept defines epilepsy as a chronic disease associated with the occurrence of two or more unprovoked seizures with a space between them for at least 24 hours. This requires differentiated by the appearance of a single seizure, the cause of which can be different conditions such as hyperthermia, fluid overload, hypoxia and hypoglycemia. Diagnosis of epilepsy is not called after a single case of fainting!
What is the cause of epilepsy?
There is no established specific cause of this disease of the nervous system. His appearance, frequency, clinical characteristics vary from person to person and are strictly individual. The foundation stands occurrence of chemical changes in the nerve cells leading to disruption of the balance between activation and inhibition of neural activity and excitement of nerve cells in an area of the brain.
How is manifested epilepsy, in particular epileptic seizure?
Virtually every function of the brain, each field of its manifestation associated with movement, sensation, awareness, smell, taste and so on, may occur in the form of seizures, depending on what area of the brain is affected and responsible for what she said. Seizure has different characteristics in each particular individual.
Overall, the stages through which epileptic seizures were three, not necessarily occur in every individual:
Aura – the first sign of the coming collapse. Can manifest as changes in sensations, feelings, thinking and behavior. When he has, it is often the same in each successive attack. In some cases, does not result in the deployment of relapses and in this case is referred to as partial attacks, i.e. a fit with no loss of consciousness. The most common heralds of attack are:
– Déjà vu and Jamais vu;
– Adoption of a nonexistent smells, sounds, tastes;
– Visual naushenie or blurred vision;
– “Strange” feeling;
– Sudden fear, panic;
– Galloper thought;
– Dizziness; Headache;
– Nausea or other stomach discomfort;
– Tingling or numbness of the body part.
Relapsing phase – corresponds to the altered electrical activity in the brain. Symptoms depend on the affected brain area:
– Changes in consciousness – fainting or forgetfulness, confusion, delirium, a sense of distance from the outside world, exclusion of consciousness;
– Memory loss or forgetfulness;
– Unusual smells, tastes, sounds;
– Loss of hearing, visual disturbances;
– Changes in speech, difficulty in swallowing;
– Unusual movements of the eyeballs;
– Increased muscle tone with stretching of a body part or the whole body; It is possible weakening of muscle tone and sudden fall;
– Convulsions – after loss of consciousness followed by stretching the whole body and rapid twitching of the limbs and body;
– Automatism – unconscious, involuntary – eg. movements imitating putting on lipstick or chewing; hand movements simulating key presses; dressing, undressing, etc;
– Repetitive voluntary movement – patient continues movements that started before the attack;
– Sweating, change in skin color – pallor or redness;
– Release of pelvic tanks;
– Expansion of the pupils, palpitations, shortness of breath and more.
Continues different times depending on the case. Some patients recovered immediately, while others are required from a few minutes to several hours. Usually expressed in dizziness, confusion, drowsiness, memory loss, headache, nausea, thirst, fatigue, exhaustion and others. The sudden loss of consciousness could lead to the occurrence of injuries with bruises, broken bones, head injuries and others.
Epileptic seizures have a different character in each case, but once occurred in this individual’s clinical presentation tends to be repeated for each successive attack.