The liver acts as a kind of laboratory for the body, which, in addition to carry out treatment processes of various substances takes place and synthesis of biological molecules. Various factors can have a detrimental influence on him and disrupt his functions belong. The inflammatory processes are the most common medical conditions of the liver, and are referred to generally as hepatitis. It can be caused both by excessive use of alcohol, certain medications and drugs and the various infectious agents – hepatitis viruses, Epstein-Barr virus, leptospirosis, the causative agent of yellow fever and others. Some infections can occur acutely and be self-limiting, while others run subclinical or asymptomatic with chronic infectious process. Inflammation of the liver can be focal or diffuse, affecting the entire structure.
Caused by hepatitis viruses diseases are acute flow causing diffuse inflammation of the liver. For some of them – hepatitis virus A and E has a characteristic that is transmitted by the faecal-oral route (often through contaminated hands or objects) and at the same time do not lead to a chronic inflammatory process. Morbidity leads to a lasting immunity. In contrast, hepatitis viruses B, C and D are transmitted through blood or sexual contact, and so on. Pomegranate way vertical transmission (from infected pregnant mother to her fetus). For these viruses is characterized by the inflammatory process can become chronic in a certain percentage of those who complete the acute stage of the infection. Chronic is a prerequisite for the development of cirrhosis or primary liver cancer. Other viruses that may affect the structure of the liver are some herpes viruses – that of Epstein-Barr, which is considered a causative agent of infectious mononucleosis. It is characterized by an increase in the liver, spleen, lymph nodes, some groups, and a typical blood cell count. The prognosis is good and treatment is mainly symptomatic.
Cytomegalovirus infection can also cause the development of hepatitis. Furthermore, the liver is likely to be affected with some peripheral nerves subsequent development of paralysis. In effect on the colon, the clinical picture is expressed with the symptoms of ulcerative colitis. It is possible to reach the infection and the brain with the subsequent development of encephalitis (inflammation of the brain tissue). Furthermore, viruses, bacteria, some also exhibit tropism (affinity) to the structure of the liver. An example of such is the causative agent of leptospirosis. Infection, which is in most cases strongly, but some develop severe clinical form known as Alzheimer’s Weil-Vassilev, which takes place in two phases. The first of these is expressed in the flu-like illness which is clinically indistinguishable from a common cold. In contrast, the second phase is characterized by involvement of the different organs – kidney, liver, and may lead to their failure.
A number of parasitic diseases – malaria, amoebiasis, schistosomiasis, hydatid disease and others can proceed with the involvement of the liver and thus cause the development of hepatitis. In malaria increased liver is accompanied by enlargement of the spleen and the occurrence of high temperature, which is characterized by peaks and troughs in their values. Anemia is also part of symptom characteristic of malaria. The cause of amebiasis most often leads to the onset of bloody diarrhea, mucus capable of extraintestinal complications. Damage to the liver can be presented in the form of diffuse hepatitis or liver amoebic abscess (pus collection). In contrast, echinococcosis causes mainly the formation of cysts in the liver, which are filled with parasites. For accurate diagnosis and adequate treatment is needed as research laboratory indicators in blood and urine, and some virological and microbiological studies to demonstrate the type of disease agent