Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is prevalent worldwide and is a common infection among newborns. The virus is also known as human herpes virus type 5. For a long time it was thought that Cytomegalovirus infection is of secondary importance to man. After numerous studies have found that the cause is capable of causing disease in all periods of human life – from fetal development to adulthood.
How is infection with the virus?
The transmission of infection from sick to healthy person requires very close contact. The virus is excreted in body secretions – saliva, semen, cervical secretions, urine, faeces. Therefore, sexual intercourse is one of the ways to spread the virus. Known are cases of infection from blood transfusions. Maternal-fetal infection is also possible. It can be done in several ways:
Placental – directly from infected placental tissue or by ascending cervical cyto-megalovirus infection;
By direct contact of the fetus during labor with infected cervical mucus;
After birth through breast mil or through contact with bodily secretions of the mother, which contain the virus.
What is the clinical manifestations?
Like most herpes viruses, and this remains a long time in the body dormant without causing infection and complaints. In immunocompetent adults there is an infectious process without clinic. Sometimes – a decrease in immunity or pregnancy occurs reactivation of the virus with symptoms of a general nature – low grade fever, general weakness and malaise, sore joints and muscles, pharyngitis, lymphadenopathy. In some cases there is also hepatosplenomegaly. The clinical presentation lasts for 2 weeks to 2 months.
Since cytomegalovirus infection in most cases goes asymptomatic, many pregnant women do not know about it. About 15% of infected mothers have babies with low birth weight, microcephaly, liver urvezhdaniya and the neurological abnormalities. Although most severe pathology of newborns survive as later manifest complications – mental lag and deafness.
Children who have acquired infection in utero from mothers with reactivation of the virus (these are mothers who have had a primary infection in any trimester of pregnancy or earlier) are partially protected by maternal antibodies. Part of newborns lose their hearing and eyesight have hepatosplenomegaly with jaundice and sometimes mental retardation.
How to protect pregnant by cytomegalovirus infection?
So far not developed a vaccine against cytomegalovirus. The most reliable method for profilaktka of congenital infection is to reduce the exposure of pregnant women to hazardous conditions for infection. This is done by classical methods – regular hand washing and avoiding contact with sick people.
How is the infection diagnosed?
In order to diagnose cytomegalovirus infection or for screening during pregnancy can be tested IgG- and IgM – antibodies against the virus. If the result is negative for both imonuglobulina, the case of women who have never had contact with sick cytomegalovirus in the past, have no immunity and can develop primary infection in a meeting with the pathogen. These pregnant women should carefully explain the need for regular serological testing each trimester and adherence to good hygiene – washing hands thoroughly with soap and water, especially after contact with body fluids of other individuals.
If IgG is negative and IgM is positive, it probably means that there is a growing infection. To prove this necessary repetition of serological examination after 3 weeks. The persistence of the laboratory finding is a demonstration of cytomegalovirus infection.
A positive IgG and negativated the IgM is indicative spent in past primary cytomegalovirus infection. A pregnant woman has acquired immunity, but it is possible relapse during pregnancy. Repeat exploration, too in the next trimester is recommended.