The eye cornea is made up of five layers, there are no blood vessels and is ideally transparent. Corneal ulcer is formed mostly in the infection of erosions (defects in the epithelium, which is the outermost layer of the cornea) or decomposition of leachate. There are different size, shape, depth and evolution. On slit lamp is seen as grayish, slightly sunken spot that has infiltrated edges and bottom.
The reasons for the emergence of corneal ulcers are many:
Bacterial infections are characterized by often for people wearing contact lenses. Bacteria can directly infiltrate corneal layer, if before any breach of surface integrity. There are also bacteria, which produce toxins and directly damage the cornea, even in the intact surface.
Viruses are also possible causes such as virus Herpes simplex, Varicella virus, etc.
Fungal infections are not excluded as a cause. Usually occur due to improper wearing contact lenses or excessive use of eye drops containing corticosteroids.
Acanthamoeba parasite also damages the cornea.
When you injure the surface of the cornea, to form a gate for all kinds of infections agents. This can happen when intrusion of a foreign body in the eye – mostly from metal shavings that are driven into the cornea, but maybe when we come dust or sand and begin to rub eyes with the idea to remove the foreign body.
Drying of the eye or called. dry eye syndrome, also cause ulcers or lead to complicating existing. This is so since the tears form an invisible film on the eye, which prevents it from drying out, maintaining the optical properties of the cornea and to protect it by continuously impinge on it washes particulate matter.
Diseases of the eyelids that violate their tight closing or nictitating reflex are also cause of ulcers. When the lower eyelids are facing outwards (ektropium) prejudice tightly closed eyes and this creates a problem with the tear film. And when they are turned inwards (entropium) eyelashes scratch the cornea and besides that create discomfort and pain can also hurt her.
Any condition leading to a decrease or absence of corneal sensation predisposes to its serious damage.
People wearing contact lenses are at greater risk of onset of corneal ulcer. It is important that contact lenses be removed before bedtime to give rest to the eyes. Likely to develop infection is higher in people using lenses that can be worn day without downloading. Not surprisingly, warns Wash hands well before placing the lens as between the cornea and the lens can retain bacteria that will be in perfect conditions to multiply and create a problem. Also the use of lenses, non enough oxygen to the cornea, creating Usau for infections. Corneal ulcer may occur as a complication of immune disorders, such as immunosuppression after transplantation, autoimmune diseases such as lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, etc.
The most common symptoms that occur in this disease are: visual impairment, tearing, foreign body sensation in the eye, pain, light sensitivity.
Treatment is determined by the agent. If the ulcer is the result of a viral or bacterial infection, to take appropriate medications – antiviral or antibiotic agents. Corticosteroids are prescribed only after thorough examination and accurately clarify the cause of the disease, respectively, and their implementation is monitored by a doctor.
In most cases, the refund altogether. If the ulcer does not pass and threatens to break corneal scar (scar) that remains after her recovery is large and interfere with vision, undertaken surgical treatment – corneal transplant.