Glaucoma is one of the worst diseases in ophthalmology, as it develops quietly and asymptomatic early and unfortunately still no cure. To this day there are people who believe that glaucoma is a disease in which vision is lost just because of the high intraocular pressure. In real-term glaucoma unite different eye diseases that damage the optic nerve, resulting in lost vision. The statistics on affected is approximate because many people do not know about the disease. Lack of prevention and insufficient awareness of glaucoma create a wrong idea of patients for this disease. Timely detection of glaucoma, before they experience symptoms can provide a maximum delay of development.
The optic nerve is composed of a plurality of nerve fibers that come from the nerve cells in the retina and is collected in a given location, called a papilla. Optic nerve impulses received from all parts of the retina and conducts them to the brain, where they are transformed into the corresponding image. His injury is mostly irreversible, whatever the reason. It is because of this treatment, which is applied in glaucoma is to prevent nerve damage. In most cases, this disease is associated with increased intraocular pressure (IOP). This pressure is obtained by the aqueous liquid which is circulated in the forward (behind the cornea, iris and lens in front) and posterior chamber of the eye (behind the iris). This fluid has a very important function. It feeds the structures of the eye, which have no blood vessels in order to allow light to pass unobstructed therethrough (cornea, lens, vitreous), and takes the end products of metabolism. Normal intraocular pressure was 21 mmHg.
It is important to note that not always elevated intraocular pressure is glaucoma, and that is not always normal intraocular pressure glaucoma excluded. There are various types of glaucoma. Generally it is primary (occurring without rollover eye disease), secondary (due to another eye disease) and innate. From the turn primary glaucoma divided into open-and-closure. The reasons that lead to optic nerve damage despite normal intraocular pressure is still being clarified. It is believed that respect has poor circulation to the optic nerve (primary vascular dysregulation, etc.). It is also, though there are contradictions that this type of glaucoma play an important role and individual patient characteristics, ie for a person values of intraocular pressure considered normal, are considered higher than his body. This is taken into account in determining therapy.
The most common form of glaucoma is the intraocular pressure above 21 mmHg. In it the main cause of optic nerve damage is exactly the increased pressure. Typical is the family heredity first kinship, and the presence of cardiovascular disease such as atherosclerosis.
Thus separated, the two types of glaucoma have their flow characteristics:
In normal intraocular pressure long visual ability is retained, ie changes in the optic nerve does not feel subjectively by the patient until it came a moment when suddenly appears so called. Central Scotoma (dropping out of the field in the central part).
High intraocular pressure gradually dropping visual ability in peripheral parts of the visual field.
The treatment, which takes diagnosed with glaucoma depends on the individual needs of the patient. The ophthalmologist must determine the exact value of intraocular pressure, which is suitable for the patient. The adjustment is achieved by drops or surgery under close medical supervision. The conclusion that can be drawn is that the screening for glaucoma can prevent irreparable vision loss.