Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver that can be caused by various types of viruses, parasites, bacteria and fungal pathogens. Hepatitis viruses have expressed affinity for liver cells, resulting in infection to diffuse inflammation and necrosis. The clinical spectrum of infection ranges from asymptomatic or mild flow to prolonged jaundice or fulminant hepatitis, often ending in death. Diagnosis of the disease is clinical laboratory as besides clinical relevant to diagnosis are some virological markers. Important targeting infection with hepatitis viruses are epidemiological data on contact with sick transfusions, dialysis, intravenous drug use or unprotected sex.
The most common symptoms are fatigue, lack of appetite, pain, and / or right-sided abdominal weight, and elevated liver enzymes. Amid these symptoms crucial for diagnosis remain specific virological markers. The virus of hepatitis A infection is sharp whose mechanism of transmission is faecal-oral. It is also called “virus dirty hands.” The most widely used are the tests for the detection of antigens (substances chuzhdorodni the body with protein nature and cause an immune response) and antibodies (glycoproteins, formed in response to the penetration of antigens in the body).
The discovery of specific antigens Hepatitis A – HAV-Ag in feces (stool of the patient) is a direct marker for the presence of infection. They appear several days to a week before onset of symptoms disappear within 1-2 weeks after the start of the clinical picture. Antibodies appear somewhat later as they may be from different classes – IgM and IgG. Anti-HAV IgM-antibodies are a marker for fresh infection, whereas anti-HAV IgG antibodies are indicative of past infection and immunity as a result of inserted hepatitis A vaccine. In terms of hepatitis B virus diagnostic importance is the detection of so-called surface antigen – HbsAg. Scar of active viral infection is the presence of this surface antigen in combination with HbeAg. Anti-Hbc the class IgM is also a marker for evidence of active viral infection. The presence of anti-Hbs and anti-Hbc antibodies of the classes IgG and IgM are markers for acquired immunity after preboleduvane.
It is important to distinguish immunity gained after immunization with hepatitis B vaccine to immunize individuals are found only anti-Hbs antibodies. For proof of acute viral hepatitis D used the opening of indirect markers of infection – that formed antibodies in response to incoming body viral antigens. Searching for anti-HDV antibodies of the class IgM, which indicate the presence of active infection, and subsequently appearing and antibodies of the class IgG. D hepatitis virus can not penetrate and multiply in the body alone. It is necessary the presence of hepatitis virus B, the infection with these viruses may be simultaneously (co-infection) or sequentially (superinfection).
Laboratory evidence of hepatitis C viral infection is difficult. Mainly the discovery of viral RNA. Antibodies against infection are formed from several weeks to a month later of infection, as this period is called the “window”. Not always detect antibodies in immunocompromised patients or those undergoing hemodialysis. Upon infection with hepatitis E investigate the presence of antibodies of class IgM, which speak acute infection, and for the detection of antibodies class IgG, this indicates a past infection. While hepatitis A and E are acute infections and lead to chronic, then at some suffered from hepatitis B and C leads to persistence of infection and the onset of chronic disease course. They are also a major role in the appearance of cirrhosis and primary liver cancer.