Mumps is a viral infection affecting mostly parotid salivary glands. It is possible involvement of other glands – pancreas, testes, ovaries. The cause of the disease can cause meningitis and serous, often without evidence of harm to the brain parenchyma. In epidemiological importance are asymptomatic forms of flow, as well as non-specific respiratory tract infection. The reservoir and source of infection are people – patients with overt symptoms, and people with atypical ongoing or latent (hidden) form of the disease. The mechanism for transmission of the infection is airborne, the virus is isolated from the saliva of the patient 5 days before the onset of symptoms within 5 days after their onset (usually close to the period of swelling of the salivary glands).
The disease is ubiquitous, with universal susceptibility of the population and relatively low index infectivity. The incubation period varies within 1 to 3 weeks, but on average is about 15-18 days. After over-disease acquired lasting immunity against the disease, and repeated episodes are rare. After expiry of the incubation period follows the so-called prodromal period, characterized by non-specific symptoms – fever, headache, malaise, loss of appetite and the like. Subsequent symptoms from the parotid glands that swell, become painful and the skin over them becomes hot, red and stretched. It is possible involvement of other major salivary glands – sublingual and submandibular.
Due to impaired function due to inflammation, salivary glands do not produce enough saliva, which is why patients complain of dry mouth. The face of the patient acquires distinctive look due to swollen salivary glands, as well as increased regional lymph nodes.
In women, inflammation of the ovaries is rare. It is possible to affect the infection and the structure of the pancreas. Symptoms of pancreatitis are sudden fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and severe pain in the stomach, which can be dangerous. Central nervous system is most often in the form of serous (negnoen) meningitis. The clinical picture is characterized by fever, severe headache and sudden vomiting as a “fountain”, which does not lead to relief. Moreover manifests and stiff neck – severe pain in the inability to move the neck muscles a change in the position of the head. To be proven causative agent and to confirm the diagnosis, it is necessary to make a virological examination. For prevention of the disease is administered vaccine which is combined against two more diseases than mumps – measles and rubella. It is a live vaccine and not be used in pregnant or immunosuppressed individuals. Place the double – 13 months and 12 years old.
It is recommended its application in non-immune persons who have not had mumps. Exposed patients were isolated in good time, most commonly in the home (for 8-10 days), while the effect on testicles and central nervous system requires hospitalization. Generally the disease has a good prognosis, but deaths are extremely rare, especially after the introduction of compulsory immunization.