Transesophageal echocardiography

Transesophageal echocardiographyEchocardiography is widely used and highly informative diagnostic method cardyology. They are used to study the structure and function of the heart and major blood vessels using devices called echocardiography, completely safe and non-invasive. By transducer (echocardiography probe) placed adjacent to the heart, respectively and are directed back ultrasonic waves displayed on the screen areas examined by the doctor.

Looking: dimensions and volumes cardiac chambers, the thickness of the partitions between them, the heart wall, the structure and function of the valve, flows ejected and left heart blood, heart shell (pericardium) and others. 
Use: echocardiography is performed by professional speaking technology and assessment by a physician. Most often it is diagnostic, valvular heart failure, infectious endokardit, tumors, heart failure, cardiomyopathy, congenital heart anomalies, vascular abnormalities, pericarditis and effusion and others. Today echocardiography is an indispensable method in cardiology.

According to the technique of conducting the survey is divided into several basic types:
One-dimensional and two-dimensional echocardiography;
Doppler echocardiography – pulsed Doppler or continuous wave and color Doppler. It looks through the blood flow, flow rates of the cavities and vessels in a specific area of ​​the heart;
Stress echocardiography – then testing is done after load – natural or drug, to evaluate the functional capacity of the heart;
Transezofagialna echocardiography – when the heart is not inspected by placing the transducer on the front chest wall (transthoracic) by a transducer in the esophagus (esophageal).
 
What is transesophageal echocardiography and in what cases it is preferable?
In this type of endoscopic by echocardiography probe reaches the esophagus. At its apex a special transducer, which reaches the level of the heart and major blood vessels (about 25 cm from the mouth – dental) and allows their detailed sighting. Is performed, such as isolation testing and during surgical procedures. Most informative value of the method is due to several reasons:
Close proximity to the heart;
No pregrazhaщi structures – thorax, lung;
Higher ultrasonic frequencies;
More detail can be seen the aorta or other blood vessels.
 
When prefers transesophageal echocardiography?
Transoesophageal echocardiography is the preferred method:
Infective endocarditis;
Aortic dissection;
Injury of the aorta;
Assessment of valvular defects;
Postoperative follow-up of prosthetic valves;
Given in critically ill;
During operation or immediately afterwards, etc.

How the test is conducted and there peculiarities in preparation?
The patient is lying down, turn left and endoscopic probe enters from the oral cavity to the esophagus gradually the level of the heart. The procedure lasts about 30 minutes. Performed under local or general anesthetic. Feels mild discomfort, depending on the individual and its threshold of tolerance. Pogotovkata necessary for the study to be performed on an empty stomach after removing the dentures, if any, after consulting the anesthetist to planned medication to be administered. The doctor shall explain the patient risks of possible manipulation: prebledяvane, nausea, sweating, abnormal heart rhythm, as well as serious and such rare respectively, laryngospasm, belosdroben swelling drilling esophagus and others.

When contraindicated conduct of the study?
In congenital or acquired abnormalities of the esophagus – narrowing extension after burn or surgery; bleeding in the stomach or esophagus, as well as the patient disagreement